BMW 3 series E46
Since 1998 of release
Repair and car operation
The BMW of 3 series Е46
- Cars BMW 3 (Е46)
Identification numbers of the car
Acquisition of spare parts
Technology of service, the tool and the workplace equipment
Поддомкрачивание and towage
Start of the engine from the auxiliary power supply
Checks of readiness of the car to operation
Automobile химикалии, oils and greasings
Diagnostics of malfunctions
Controls and operation receptions
Controls and devices
Keys, the uniform lock and anticreeping system
The hatch with podemno-sdvizhnoj крышкой*
Adjustment of position of a steering wheel
The lock of ignition and engine start
Manual box of a gear change (РКПП)
Automatic transmission (АТ) *
The lever of the switch of indexes of turn / a light signal
Screen wipers and washer
Heater of back glass
Темпостат (automatics of maintenance of the set speed) *
The alarm system of emergency rapprochement at a parking (PDC) *
System of automatic stabilisation of stability with a regulator of a twisting moment of engine ASC+T/System of the dynamic control of stability DSC*
The monitoring system of pressure of air in tyres (RDC) *
Illumination and light devices
Heater, ventilation and the conditioner of air of salon
The salon equipment
Features of driving of the car
The Katalitichesky converter
Antiblocking system of brakes (ABS)
Readjustment of headlights
Unlocking of a cover of the refuelling hatch manually
Drive podemno-sdvizhnoj hatch covers вручную*
+ Current leaving and service
+ The engine
+ Systems of cooling, heating
+ Power supply systems, injection and release
+ Engine electric equipment
+ РКПП and трансмиссионная a line
+ Automatic transmission
+ Coupling and power shafts
+ Brake system
+ Suspension bracket and steering
+ Onboard electric equipment
+ Electric equipment schemes
Checks of readiness of the car to operationIntroduction
In Section everything which are subject to check are listed, knots and systems and are offered ways of independent check of their condition and functioning. On the basis of the analysis of results of such checks it is possible to estimate readiness of the car for operation and checkup passage. Naturally, independently spent checks cannot be compared on accuracy of measurements with professional, in view of absence of corresponding qualification of the operator and inaccessibility of the special diagnostic equipment. If during carrying out of independent checks necessity of performance of repair or replacement any of components is revealed, address to corresponding Sections of corresponding Heads of the Management for the purpose of reception of fuller information.
In most cases performance of forthcoming checks demands participation in them of the assistant.
The checks made from a driver's place
Lay (manual) brake
Check of functioning of a lay brake is made by full raising of the lever of its management. Thus it is necessary to make sure that the size of a course of the lever (quantity of clicks of a ratchet), demanded for occurrence of sensation of the full resistance caused by raising of the brake mechanism, is not excessive. If this requirement is not carried out, it is necessary to check up serviceability of brake mechanisms of back wheels of the car and-or correctness of adjustment of cables of a drive of a lay brake.
Completely having cocked a lay brake, shake the lever of its management here and there (knock on it from sides) - thus the brake should not be released, - deterioration of a ratchet or the doggie of the lever otherwise takes place. Release a lay brake and shake the lever here and there for revealing of signs of deterioration of the axial bearing. Check up reliability of fastening of the lever and make sure of absence of traces of corrosion of a bearing element of a body in radius of 30 sm round a lever support. If the condition of fixture of the lever does not give in to check from car salon, estimate it later during the checks made under the car.
Make sure that the brake pedal at squeezing and release does not publish any sounds, does not show obvious signs of excessive deterioration of axial plugs, also check up a condition of an overlay of a pedal. Make sure of absence of signs of leaks of a brake liquid on a pedal, to a floor or a surface of a rug round a pedal, speaking about infringement of tightness of sealing cuffs of the main brake cylinder.
Squeeze out a pedal at first slowly, and then quickly, achieving possibility of keeping of steady pressure. Create pressure and make sure that the pedal does not start then to fail slowly to a floor that again would specify in problems with the main brake cylinder. Release a pedal, wait for some seconds, then again squeeze out it till the moment of occurrence of firm resistance. Make sure that resistance starts to arise already on the top site of a course of a pedal. If for occurrence of resistance the pedal is required to be drowned almost to a floor, it specifies in infringement of adjustment of brake mechanisms. If firm resistance to pedal squeezing does not arise at all, i.e. softness of a course of a pedal takes place, it speaks about hit in hydraulic system of air and necessity of full prorolling of system.
Check up serviceability of functioning of the vacuum amplifier of brakes, having squeezed out some times a pedal of a brake for depression dump. Then, keeping a pedal squeezed out, start the engine. At the moment of start of the engine resistance to pedal squeezing should change to (decrease). If it not so, exists probability of "leaks" of vacuum hoses of the block of the amplifier of brakes or actually its malfunction.
Helmsmen a wheel and a column
Check up a steering wheel on presence of cracks or easing of landing of a nave, spokes or a rim. Shake a wheel here and there, then upwards-downwards in relation to a column. Make sure of absence люфта wheels on a column which is the certificate of easing of a nut of fastening of a wheel or deterioration шлицов a shaft. Continue to shake a wheel as it is described above, but add still its easy rotation to the right-to the left. Make sure of absence excessive люфта a wheel speaking about excessive deterioration of the top basic bearing of a shaft, карданного the hinge (ов) or flexible муфты.
Windscreen and rear-view mirrors
On a windscreen there should not be cracks and the other damages, capable is appreciable to limit sector of the review of the driver, or screen wipers stirring to work. Presence small выщерблин, the stones left at blows is admissible. Any labels and pendant souvenirs also should not limit the review of the driver.
Rear-view mirrors should be reliably fixed, are not damaged and should give in to adjustment. The door mirror from the passenger party of the car экзаменовке is not subject under condition of serviceability and the presence of possibility of using by a rear-view mirror fixed from the interior of a windscreen.
Seats and seat belts
Clasp and unbutton each of belts, checking serviceability of functioning of mechanisms of locks (both on защелкивание, and on opening) and their reliability. If belts of inertial type are established check up serviceability of functioning of returnable devices.
Check up reliability of fastening of belts to elements of a body and a condition of their basic knots access to which is possible without removal of panels of an upholstery. Presence of signs of strong corrosion or deformation of bearing elements of a body in radius of a support of a belt also is inadmissible. Fastenings of seat belts some of knots are inaccessible and at all are not subject to external survey from car salon, in this case check of their condition should be made later at bottom survey. If any of parts of the mechanism of a belt are fixed directly on a forward seat, seat support should be reliably screwed on a floor, and their condition is subjected the same check, as described above for support of belts.
Forward seats also should be reliably fixed and should not suppose spontaneous change of the position. Backs should be fixed reliably in vertical position.
Forward doors should open and be closed from within the car and reliably be fixed in the closed position.
Include "ignition" and involve a horn. The horn should publish the pure sound well heard by other participants of traffic. Application of gongs, sirens or 2-tonovyh the small horns established as additional accessories independently is inadmissible.
Check up functioning of washers and windscreen cleaners. Washers should give a stream of a liquid of an adequate pressure and the expense, and their nozzles are adjusted so that streams got to a windscreen upper edge.
Involve simultaneously with washers screen wipers and make sure that brushes qualitatively wipe a windscreen in all range of the course. On glass should not remain потеков and the strips of the smeared road film limiting the review of the driver as in rectilinear, and peripheral sectors of a field of vision. Otherwise replace brushes.
Squeeze out a pedal of a foot brake at included "ignition" and ask the assistant to check up functioning of stoplights. At squeezing of a pedal stoplights should light up, and at release - to die away. If one of stoplights a cause of a failure most likely is blowing lamps or bad electric contact on a lamp cartridge (or near to it) does not burn only. If refusal of both stoplights it is necessary to check up their safety lock and the switch takes place. It is not necessary to exclude completely also probability simultaneous перегорания both lamps. Refusal of lamps of stoplights of deenergizing at release brake pedals is the certificate of malfunction of the switch.
The checks made on the car being on the earth
Licence plates and identifi-katsionnye car numbers
Forward and back licence plates should be in a satisfactory condition, to be reliably attached and easily to be read.
Identification number of the car (VIN), located on шильде under a cowl should be legible.
Include dimensional fires and make sure that have lighted up both forward, and back dimensions, and also lamps of illumination of licence plate. Lenses and reflectors should be pure, intact and are reliably fixed. Integrity of lenses has special value in back lanterns where this world of damaged fire can be confused other participants of traffic with a signal of inclusion of a backing. Pollution of lenses causes appreciable decrease in intensity of light let out by a lamp.
Include head headlights and make sure that blocks both near, and a headlight function normally and with intensity identical to both headlights. Decrease in intensity of a luminescence of any of head headlights is usually connected with infringement of quality of electric contacts or strong corrosion of an internal reflector. Check up lenses of head headlights on presence of cracks and the stones left as a result of blows выщерблин. Such defects are inadmissible, however usually qualification of degree of their gravity is the subjective factor. Remember that all lighting devices should work smoothly at the first switching of switches. Постукивание on the block of the lighting device for the purpose of its inclusion is inadmissible action.
Head headlights should not only to be adjusted so that not to blind other participants of traffic in a passing light mode, but also to provide adequate illumination of a road cloth in front of the car. Check of adjustment of a direction of head headlights make by means of the special optical equipment, therefore, in a case absence of confidence of its correctness it is necessary to address beforehand to experts for carrying out of check and updating of position of headlights.
Having included "ignition", check up functioning of indexes of turns. Make sure that both forward, and back from them radiate yellow light and blink with frequency about one-two times a second. Besides, the obligatory requirement is serviceability of indicators of inclusion of indexes of turns on an instrument guard. Inclusion of dimensional fires and stoplights should not influence functioning of indexes of turns - if it not so, the reason is usually covered in bad quality of grounding in blocks of the back combined lanterns. Similarly make sure of serviceability of functioning of the alarm system which should operate both at included, and at switched off "ignition". Check up a condition of lenses (see above).
Check up functioning of antifog headlights (). Obligatory check usually concerns only established outside of the antifog headlight entering into a standard complete set and located from one of the parties of the car. The headlight should be reliably fixed and should make bright, остронаправленный a ray of light of red colour. The control lamp on an instrument guard (or in the switch) also should function.
From an impellent compartment check up brake tubes on presence of signs of leaks, traces of corrosion, unreliability of fastening, протертостей and other damages. Check up the main brake cylinder and the block of the vacuum amplifier of brakes on presence of signs of leaks, reliability of fastening and signs of excessive corrosion as support of components, and elements of a body surrounding them. The tank of the main brake cylinder should be reliably fixed; fur-trees it is made of a translucent material, liquid level should be in it between the top and bottom marks in walls.
Turn a steering wheel so that the flexible hose of the right forward brake mechanism could be examined. Carefully check up a hose on presence of cracks and signs of ageing of rubber. Defects is most easier come to light at hose bending half-and-half and their presence is almost inevitable on sites where the hose is connected to unions. Turn a steering wheel against the stop to the left, then - to the right and make sure that the hose does not adjoin to a wheel disk, the tyre or any of moving components of a suspension bracket or a steering. Having asked the assistant to squeeze out strongly a brake pedal, check up a hose on presence of swellings and signs of leaks of a liquid under pressure. Repeat checks for a hose of the left brake mechanism. In case of revealing of defects make necessary replacements.
Check up tubes and hoses of brake lines on presence of signs of damages and material ageing.
The steering mechanism and suspension bracket
Ask the assistant slightly повращать a steering wheel to the right-to the left in a range till the moments of the beginning of transfer of rotation to operated wheels. Try to estimate thus size of a free wheeling of a steering wheel till the moment of the beginning of operation of the steering mechanism. The size of it люфта gives the information on degree of deterioration of hinges of a steering column, deterioration and reliability of fastening муфты connections of a column with the steering mechanism or unreliability of fastening, deterioration or infringement of adjustment of actually steering mechanism. The steering wheel free wheeling should not exceed 2.5 see
Ask the assistant strongly повращать a steering wheel in both directions in a range prior to the beginning of turn of operated wheels. Thus watch closely behaviour of hinges, draughts and other elements of a steering drive and knots of their fastening. The components showing signs of deterioration, damage, deformation or unreliability of fastening should be repaired or replaced.
If the car is equipped by system of hydrostrengthening of a wheel, check up also reliability of fastening of the pump of system and a condition and correctness of its tension drive a belt. The system should function and not show regularly signs of leaks of a hydraulic liquid or damage of hoses. Additional checks can be made later when the car will be lifted over the earth and access under it considerably will become simpler.
Make sure of flatness of landing of the car and correctness of height of a road gleam. Make sure that there is a sufficient backlash between components of a suspension bracket and buffers of a course of the compression, a guaranteeing full speed of a suspension bracket.
Press serially each of car corners, sharply then releasing it. If the shock-absorber is perfectly in order, the corner should rise, and then return to normal position. If the corner of the car after отпускания continues to be shaken upwards-downwards, the shock-absorber has lost the демпфирующие properties.
System of release of the fulfilled gases
Start the engine and, having asked the assistant to press to a cut of an exhaust pipe a rags lump, check up all system on presence of signs of the leaks shown in the form of rhythmically pulsing streams of a smoke or the hissing sound, proceeding directly from a leak source. Check up an overall performance of the muffler, having made sure that level of the sound published at work of the engine corresponds expected for the car of the given type. In a case if the system in general is in a satisfactory condition, insignificant local leaks can be eliminated with the help патентованного special ремнабора.
The checks made on the car, lifted over the earth, at freely rotating wheels
Поддомкратьте the car, reliably having fixed it on the props got under points bearing loading of a frame of the car. Establish props so that they did not make contact with suspension bracket components (including at поворачивании forward wheels). Make sure that all wheels do not concern the earths, and operated are capable to turn from an emphasis against the stop.
The steering mechanism
Check up a condition of rubber protective covers the helmsman рейки. Make sure that on them there are no cuts, signs of leaks and unreliability of fastening of bandages. If management is equipped by hydrostrengthening system, check up its rubber hydraulic hoses, tubes and knots of their joining on presence of signs of ageing of a material, leaks, протертостей and other damages. Attentively see all components of a steering on presence of signs of jamming or too hard course, loss шплинтов and other lock adaptations, and also traces of excessive corrosion of elements of a body in radius of 30 sm round knots of fastening of any of components.
Ask the assistant to turn a steering wheel against the stop at first on the left, then to the right. Make sure that thus steering components (columns, the mechanism and a drive) движутся smoothly and freely and that any of them (including disks and tyres of wheels) does not make contact with hoses or tubes of brake system or any elements of a body of the car.
Forward both back suspension brackets and bearings of wheels
Since right forward, serially inspect a condition of bearings of wheels, spherical support of a suspension bracket, rotary knots and fixture of components of a suspension bracket. For this purpose undertake a wheel in points on 3 both at 9 o'clock and strongly pull it. Presence of any люфта in the listed knots is inadmissible. Check up cases of rubber and metal plugs of components of a suspension bracket on presence of signs of ageing or material damage, and components on presence of bends, deformations and signs of excessive corrosion. Check up presence of all шплинтов, lock washers or another контрящего the equipment of fixture of components of a suspension bracket. Make sure of absence of traces of strong corrosion of elements of a body in radius of 30 sm round points of fastening of components.
Presence of any excessive люфта can be established by introduction between a support of a component and its body of mount or the big screw-driver and their use as the lever. Whether thus it is possible to establish is the reason of a weak point deterioration of the axial plug, a fixing bolt or actually a time (frequently appear developed to the oval form болтовые apertures).
Now undertake a wheel in points on 12 and at 6 o'clock and repeat the check described above. Повращайте a wheel, whether checking there are no points закусывания in its bearing.
Repeat check for the second forward wheel, and then for both back.
Springs and shock-absorbers
Check up assemblages of racks on presence of signs of leaks of a liquid, corrosion, deep cavities of rods of pistons or damages of casings. Besides, make sure of reliability of fixture of racks.
Make sure that end faces of screw springs are planted in the correct image in the saddles, and пруток spring bodies is not damaged by corrosion, not broken off and has no cracks or other defects.
Check up reliability of fastening of basic knots, presence of signs of excessive deterioration, corrosion, cracks, deformations, and other damages of components and their plugs.
Check shock-absorbers on presence of signs of serious leaks (insignificant сочение liquids is the normal phenomenon for shock-absorbers some of types). Check up fixture and plugs of basic knots on presence of deterioration and damage of cases of blocks.
Having turned against the stop a steering wheel, serially повращайте each of forward wheels also examine protective covers of hinges of equal angular speeds (SHRUS) on presence of cracks and other damages. Check up also reliability of fastening of covers to corresponding cases the bandages.
Continuing to rotate a wheel, make sure that the power shaft is not bent and in some other way is not damaged.
If it is possible, without assorting mechanisms, check up a condition brake колодок and disks. Make sure that the material of frictional overlays is not worn out excessively and that on surfaces of disks there are no cracks, cavities, furrows and other signs of excessive deterioration.
Attentively check up a condition of rigid brake tubes under the bottom of the car and flexible hoses of back brake mechanisms. Presence of traces of excessive corrosion, протертостей, unreliability of fastening штуцерных connections of tubes, and also cracks, signs of ageing of a material, leaks and swellings under the pressure of flexible hoses is inadmissible.
Check up supports and boards of brake mechanisms on presence of signs of leaks of the brake liquid speaking about infringement of quality of hydraulic consolidations of corresponding components.
Slowly rotating serially each of wheels, ask the assistant to squeeze out a foot brake, and then to release it. Make sure thus of serviceability of functioning of each of brake mechanisms, and also that the wheel rotates freely at release brake pedals. To check up efficiency of action of brake mechanisms without application of the special equipment it is not obviously possible, however trial runs (in the presence of corresponding road and weather conditions) are capable to reveal effect of withdrawal of the car aside at rectilinear movement.
Check up the mechanism of a drive of a lay brake on истрепывание and breakage of cables, excessive deterioration and unreliability of fastening of draughts. Having asked the assistant to cock, and then to release a lay brake, make sure of reliability of operation and отпускания brake mechanisms of each of back wheels of the car.
The power supply system and release of the fulfilled gases
Check up a condition of a fuel tank, tubes, hoses and штуцерных connections (including connections on the preliminary pump, the filter and ТНВД).
All components should be reliably fixed, and not have signs of leaks. The cover of a fuel tank should be closed reliably to correspond on type shown by manufacturers of the car to requirements.
Check up release system on all length on presence of damages of support and подвесов, reliability of fastening of collars of butt connections of sections and corrosion traces.
Wheels and tyres
Attentively look serially tyres of all wheels as with external, and from the inside, and also on all surface of a protector. Presence of cuts, cracks, swellings, consolidations, protector stratifications, and also exposures of a cord and a skeleton of the tyre owing to deterioration or damages is inadmissible. Make sure of density of landing of a board of the tyre on a rim of a disk of a wheel. Check up landing and a condition of the valve of a rating of the tyre (nipple). Повращайте wheels, checking disks on presence of signs of deformations, in particular on a rim.
Make sure that the tyres of the correct size corresponding on a standard size to mark of the car are established. Installation on one axis of tyres of different type or is the size inadmissible. Use at normal operation of the car of spare tyres of special (compact) type is inadmissible. Besides, tyres should be pumped up with demanded pressure.
By means of the special adaptation measure depth of a pattern of a protector of the tyre. On the safety rules of traffic accepted now the pattern should be looked through accurately on all area of a protector and have depth not less than 1.6 mm at least on three quarters of width of a protector. Certain deterioration of a protector on external and internal edges is admissible, however it should have the form of an equal continuous ring and a protector pattern on the worn out site should be looked through also. Any excessive deterioration from listed above can appear a sign of infringement of adjustment of corners of installation of forward wheels which should be checked up before tyres will definitively fail. For more detailed information on typical deterioration of protectors and adjustment of corners of installation of forward wheels address to corresponding Heads of the Management.
Check up all bearing elements of a body and a car frame on sites subject to loadings on presence of signs of corrosion. Loaded and bearing all profile elements of a frame, thresholds, cross-section beams, racks of a body, a support and fixture of elements of a suspension bracket and a steering, components of brake system and seat belts are considered. The corrosion essentially reducing a thickness of metal of bearing sites of a body of the car and causing their easing, is inadmissible. In this case the car should be subjected кузовному to repair.
Check of toxicity of the fulfilled gases
Warm up the engine to normal working temperature and make sure of performance of preliminary requirements to carrying out of check of adjustment of turns of idling (i.e. that ТНВД normally functions, and the element of the air filter is in a satisfactory condition).
Before the beginning of measurements lift frequency of rotation of the engine to value approximately in 2500 rpm and keep it at this level about 20 seconds. Again dump turns to single and get accustomed to a smoke leaving an exhaust pipe of the car. If idling turns are obviously exceeded, or in case of emission from system of release of clearly appreciable dark blue or black smoke during time more than in 5 seconds, it is necessary to subject the car to repair. The dark blue smoke is a sign of burning out of impellent oil (deterioration маслоотражательных caps of cores of the valves, directing plugs of valves, piston rings or a mirror of cylinders) while black it is possible to consider as the certificate of incomplete combustion of fuel (pollution of an element of the air filter or other problems in work of system of injection of fuel, bad work of atomizers).
If turns of idling and an external condition of an exhaust are in norm, it is necessary to measure by means of the analyzer of the fulfilled gases the maintenance in an exhaust of hydrocarbonic connections. Further it is supposed that such analyzer can be to hire or is borrowed - to get it for the mechanic-fan irrationally. Alternatively it is necessary to address for carrying out of the given check on a car repair shop.
The maintenance in an exhaust of hydrocarbons should not exceed 1200 particles on one million. If the car does not pass the given check on single turns, repeat it at frequency of rotation of the engine in 2000 rpm; if now the maintenance of hydrocarbons gets to norm, it is possible to consider check successfully passed.
The excessive maintenance in the fulfilled gases of hydrocarbonic connections can be a sign of burning out of oil, however with not smaller degree of probability can be caused as well by incomplete combustion of fuel. It is possible to include in number of the possible reasons:
Infringement of installation of a corner of an advancing of injection of fuel.
b) the Wrong backlash of valves.
c) Low компрессионное pressure in cylinders.
Remember also that the excessive maintenance of hydrocarbons in the fulfilled gases can be a consequence of functioning infringement каталитического the converter (if that enters into a car complete set).